Renting an electric scooter should not give the government the right to trace your every move — where you start, where you end, and all stops, twists, and turns in between. But that's the situation in the City of Los Angeles where electric scooter rental companies are required to provide real-time and historic GPS tracking data to city officials.

On June 8, 2020, Plaintiffs Justin Sanchez and Eric Alejo — represented by the American Civil Liberties Union Foundations of Southern and Northern California, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and the law firm Greenberg Glusker Fields Claman & Machtinger LLP — filed a lawsuit charging that the city’s requirement of scooter tracking data violates the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and the California Electronic Communications Privacy Act.

Beginning in late 2017, communities across California witnessed a near-overnight invasion of motorized electric scooters on city sidewalks. Equipped with tiny motors, batteries, and sleek insignia, they introduced a new dockless mode of transit for smartphone-equipped consumers. But as the popularity of the scooters quickly rose, so did complaints over cluttered sidewalks and interference with public right-of-ways.

In Los Angeles, the Department of Transportation (LADOT) adopted a software tool — the Mobility Data Specification (MDS) — to use GPS data to automatically track the precise movement of every scooter rider. In order to get permits to operate in the city, the electric scooter and bike rental companies had to agree to use MDS on all their vehicles and give LADOT access to their GPS coordinates.

The data does not include the identity of the rider, but that information can be determined in a number of ways. For example, when a trip begins at a home and ends at a sensitive location — such as a therapist’s office, marijuana dispensary, a Planned Parenthood clinic, or a political protest — all the government would need to know is who lives at the house in order to identify the rider and why the rider was making the trip.

After it's collected, this kind of detailed information can ultimately be lost, shared, stolen, or subpoenaed. If in the wrong hands, it can also result in arrest, domestic abuse, and stalking, as a recent investigation of automatic license plate reader information in California revealed. In other cases, location information in the hands of authorities can stoke racial and gender-based violence.

The lawsuit, brought by against the City of L.A. and LADOT, seeks an injunction to end all prospective collection, storage, or maintenance of precise location data acquired through MDS.

Case Developments

December 20, 2021

Appellant files his Reply Brief in the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals.

November 5, 2021

LADOT files in Answering Brief in the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals.

July 23, 2021

Appelant Justin Sanchez files his Opening Brief in the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals.

February 24, 2021

District Court grants Defendant's Motion to Dismiss.

August 21, 2020

Plaintiffs filed their Opposition to the Department of Transportation’s Motion to Dismiss.

July 31, 2020

The Los Angeles Department of Transportation filed its Motion to Dismiss the Complaint.

June 8, 2020

Plaintiffs filed the original complaint in the United States District Court for the Central District of California.


Mohammad Tajsar (ACLU Foundation of Southern California); Jacob Snow (ACLU Foundation of Northern California); Jennifer Lynch, Hannah Zhou, Lee Tien (Electronic Frontier Foundation)

Pro Bono Law Firm(s)

Timothy Toohey, Douglas Mirell (Greenberg Glusker LLP)

Date filed

June 9, 2020


United States District Court, Central District of California


The Honorable Dolly M. Gee



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